Staff, IBN Live
5 February 2016
Over the years, the Indian Navy has continued to train and evolve to meet the emerging challenges in the country's interests. The modernisation and enhancement of the Navy’s capabilities to meet emerging maritime challenges/threats continues to be an ongoing process.
Along with a fleet of aircraft and ships, the Indian Navy also consists of submarines.
INS Chakra: It is an 8,140-tonne Akula class, nuclear-powered submarine. Its construction was started in 1993 but was suspended due to lack of funding. The Indian Navy sponsored the building and sea trials of the submarine on the condition that it was given to the Indian Navy on lease for 10 years. It was launched as K-152 Nerpa in October 2008 and entered service with the Russian Navy in late 2009.
The submarine was leased to the Indian Navy in 2011 after extensive trials, and was formally commissioned into service as INS Chakra II in the Eastern Naval Command at a ceremony in Visakhapatnam on 4 April
2012. Nerpa is the Russian word for the Baikal seal, and Chakra is a wheel or a disc.
Sindhughosh Class: The vessels in the Sindhughosh class are Kilo class diesel-electric submarines. They are designated 877EKM, and were built under a contract between Rosvooruzhenie and the Ministry of Defence (India). The submarines have a displacement of 3,000 tonnes, a maximum diving depth of 300 meters, top speed of 18 knots, and are able to operate solo for 45 days with a crew of 53.
The submarines under the Sindhughosh Class are INS Sindhughosh, INS Sindhudhwaj, INS Sindhudhwaj, INS Sindhuraj, INS Sindhuraj, INS Sindhuvir, INS Sindhuvir, INS Sindhuratna, INS Sindhukesari, INS Sindhukesari, INS Sindhukirti, INS Sindhukirti, INS Sindhuvijay, INS Sindhuvijay, INS Sindhurakshak and INS Sindhurashtra
Shishumar Class: The Shishumar class vessels (Type 1500) are diesel-electric submarines. These submarines are developed by the German yard Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW). The first two of these vessels were built by HDW at Kiel, while the remainder have been built at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) Mumbai.
The ships were commissioned between 1986 and 1994. These submarines have a displacement of 1660 tons when surfaced, a speed of 22 knots (41 km/h), and a complement of 40 including eight officers. The submarines have the provision of an IKL-designed escape system.